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Psychometric is used to measure, discover and assess ones mental state and also their cognitive process to discover relevant facts which maybe essential for further diagnosis of an individual.

Psychometrics  plays an important role during a clinical assessment of a patient by providing hard evidence which indicates different elements that one is trying to measure by a specific psychometric test. Certain elements that psychometric tests generally measure are one’s personality, aptitude, interests and most importantly ones intelligence.

Psychometric tests are used to avoid biased opinions and judgement and provide a more scientific base for testing different aspects that constitute an individual’s cognitive workings. Psychometric testing are reliable measuring instruments to an extent, keeping in mind the concept of individual differences. Every individual is unique in terms of their cognitive functioning that constitute their thought process, ideologies, feelings, opinions, values, varied experiences and perspective. These different cognitive elements range and differ from individual to individual thus the disparity in the scores. However psychometric testing should measure the same objective for all.

Construction of a psychometric test is the most important part of the assessment as a lot of essential requirements have to be met while preparing the testing equipment. The particular test should measure the specific domain/ domains that it intends to measure in the first place.

Francis Galton, the man who first tapped into the concept of ‘Psychometric experiment’ and the importance of measuring and quantifying “operations of the mind”(Galton,1879).

In the initial stage psychology was considered pseudo-science as there was no ways of measuring rather quantifying the hard-core evidence and facts to support the claims made. The common notion that mind couldn’t possibly be measured unlike other fields of science, which highly depend on testing and results that are usually quantifiable and can be presented and shown to support claims. Science in the initial stage solely focussed on objectivity. And didn’t pay importance to qualitative and subjective analysis.

Psychometry eradicated the common notion of ‘mind cannot be measured’.


To study and measure intelligence scientists came up with several theories of intelligence, the basis of which relied on the architect of psychometric testing. The first intelligence test was developed by the famous Alfred Binet (1857-1911).

Alfred Binet used the psychometric testing to devise an intelligence scale in order to identify children with special needs in terms of academic requirement. The test is called Stanford-Binet intelligence test. This was one of the major contribution in the field of psychometric testing. Elements of mind were finally ‘quantifiable’. In this particular psychometric test the IQ score of an individual was calculated by taking the participants mental age divided by his/her chronological age and then multiplying with 100.

MA   * 100


 Binet wanted to measure an individual’s intelligence quotient (IQ) to categorise them accordingly and assist these children in terms of special attention towards their academic requirement.

Similarly, David Wechsler used the basic principles of psychometry and  invented the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale to measure an individual’s intelligence and respective cognitive abilities.

Wechsler further researched in the field of psychometry and came up with the fact that an overall test  score cannot determine an individual’s intelligence quotient and the fact that intelligence is a complex sphere that has many aspects to it. Wechsler wanted to measure different areas of intelligence instead of rounding intelligence as a single whole aspect, he considered that there are different areas of intelligence in an individual.

According to David Wechsler each individual may show strengths and weaknesses in different domains of intelligence. In his test he not only intended to measure  different aspects of intelligence, using objective means by just assigning scores but also derive useful relevant information from the individual scores for further assessment.

 WAIS consist of subtest that have a time limit, each of these subtests tap into different strengths and weakness of an individual. The subtests measures different aspects of intelligence. The scores are assigned on the basis of one’s perceptual reasoning , working memory, processing speed and verbal comprehension. WAIS also provides two overall scores, summarising a full Scale IQ and a General Ability Index.

WAIS is one of the most popular Intelligence Scale. This particular psychometric testing is used worldwide and updates are made on different, new versions to get more relevant and accurate data. WAIS changed the entire dynamics of psychometry by curating a whole new scientific approach in measuring different elements that constitute our cognitive workings.


Several standardised psychometric testing’s are now used in different fields for further assessment and decision making process. Aptitude test, Occupational Interest Inventory, Sales profile, language tests, WAVE, The popular GMAT, CAT are employed in different areas ; at university level in certain job sectors for screening process to assess individual potential.These psychometric testing now play a crucial role in assessing aspects of cognitive development and help to categorize accordingly. These test give an overview and measure an individual’s profile. There’s a new concept of pre -employment process, to judge an individual candidate for a position in the company. Employers use the data obtained from the psychometric testing during the decision making process.


Cognitive theories postulate that different aspects make up our overall intelligence range and individual differences contribute to development of our cognitive functioning.

Famous psychologist Earl B. Hunt, Clifford E. Lunneborg 1973 introduced the idea of putting together the principles of psychometrics and cognitive model. These Scientists tried to introduce the concept of individual differences while conducting tests, how each vary in terms of their mental capabilities.

Hunter and his colleagues on conducting psychometric tests, came up with the hypotheses that there’s an existence of underlying intelligence  that help  us to retrieve lexical information from our memory.

Sternberg supported the strong correlation between psychometric test and our cognitive involvement while taking the test. According to Sternberg complex psychometric tasks require highly refined cognitive skills. Example- encoding from an analogy, Deductive reasoning, and complex mathematical problems in a psychometric test require refined cognitive functioning which sets the basic framework for intelligence.

Advance psychometrics indulge intensive cognitive functioning, all the aspects act as an conglomeration in overall shaping of intelligence. 

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Riya Rajkotiya

Very informative
Well Written

Simran Rai

Amazing article! Worth reading!!

Jigyasa vashistha

this is such a wonderful article!! thanks for writing 🙂

Jigyasa vashistha


Simone Morarka

Very informative and detailed! Great job !!

Simone Morarka

Looking forward to more of your work!

Yashaswini Bhat

this article was worth reading.

Yashaswini Bhat

nice article

Ritu Mishra

Well written 🙂

Nidhi Dahiya

Worth reading and very informative

Asma fazhila

Well written