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Brief Introduction to Nervous System and Neurological conditions

NEUROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

Neurological are those diseases which are related to central and peripheral nervous system.

NEURONS: BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Neurons are the specialized cells for communicating various kinds of information. They are also the blocks which build the neuron system. They have a very varied appearance. It consists of three parts:-

  1. A cell body
  2. An axon
  3. One or more dendrites

In a way, neurons are a one way communication channel. Dendrites are the parts of neurons that are responsible for conducting action potential towards the cell body and axon on the other hand is that part of neuron that is responsible for conducting the action potential away from the cell body. A sheath of fatty material covering the axon is also known as myelin.

Fatty wrapping is also interrupted by many small gaps. Fatty layer and the gap play an important role in transmission of information. Damage to myelin sheath can lead to a serious affect on synaptic transmission. Synapse refers to that region where the axon approaches other cell membrane.

Myelin is produced by another set which is known as glial cells. Basic function of glial cells is to protect neurons.

ACTION POTENTIAL AND GRADED POTENTIAL

GRADED POTENTIAL:  it is a very basic type of signal within the neurons that results from external stimulation of the dendrite or what we call as cell body. Graded potentials differ in terms of proportion to the size of that stimulus which produced them.

ACTION POTENTIAL: a rapid wave of shift in electrical potential that moves along the cell membrane of a neuron cell. All this disturbance along the membrane is responsible for the transmission of information within the neuron.

Now coming towards the nervous system, if we call neurons as the building blocks then the nervous system is the combined structure. It is basically a very complex system or network of neurons which is responsible for regulating our bodily functions and it also permits us to react to the external world in many ways.

Nervous system plays a very important role in almost all aspects of our behavior or what we also call as conscious experience.

Two really major parts of nervous system:-

  1. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  2. THE PERIPHEREAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

The central nervous system is all about the brain and spinal cord. The spinal cord is that part of the body which runs through the middle. The peripheral nervous system is that part which connects all the internal glands, muscles and organs to the central nervous system.

It is further divided into two-

  1. SOMATIC SYSTEM
  2. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

Autonomic nervous system also consists of two different parts-

  1. SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
  2. PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
  3. NEUROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

The disorders are related to the spinal cord, autonomic nervous system and brain. These include epilepsy, dementia and also Alzheimer disease.

Diseases related to brain include migraine and minor strokes. There are also some headache disorders which can be really painful at times. Traumatic disorders and also neurological disorders which is usually a result of malnutrition.

Neurological disorders are mostly common in many cases but some of them can also be very rare. These disorders can also emerge from birth. Traumas are one of those factors which are responsible behind these disorders. Any damage which is caused to the nervous system results in many kinds of neurological disabilities.

These disabilities can have an impact on our communication, movement and hearing. There are more than 600 neurological disorders according to the University of California. These disorders have a direct impact on our autonomic nervous system. These disorders are currently affecting so many people across the world.

Causes behind such disorders are diverse. These disorders can affect either a neurological pathway or just a single neuron. There are some nerves which are located under the skin are usually vulnerable to damage. These nerves are called peripheral nerves.

Various causes behind the neurological disorders are:-

  1. Injuries which are physical in nature
  2. Genes
  3. Malnutrition
  4. Infections
  5. Brain trauma
  6. Environmental influences

Symptoms

Symptoms are just not only physical but also emotional. Signs can vary significantly. It is important to take a look at physical symptoms of a neurological disorder but on the other hand it is also important to comprehend emotional symptoms of the neurological conditions.

EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS OF NEUROLOGICAL CONDITION:

People who are suffering from these types of disorders experience a lot of emotional symptoms. For example, a person might go through constant mood swings and also sudden anger outbursts. People also suffer from depression. They live in a world of delusion and they don’t prefer coming out of it.

PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS OF NEUROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

  1. Weakness in muscles
  2. Complete or partial paralysis
  3. Difficulty in comprehension
  4. Poor abilities of cognition
  5. Pain
  6. Loss of sensation
  7. Seizures
  8. A certain decrease in alertness

There are a number of medical examinations which can help in the recognition of a possible neurological condition. A genetic screening, brain scans like MRI and this also includes other tests. If a person has certain types of complaints than seeking professional help is really necessary:-

  1. Constant changes in the personal behavior
  2. Feeling numbness in different parts of the body
  3. Weakness
  4. Blurred out vision
  5. Tremors
  6. Fatigue

Medication for treating these neurological conditions is. Drug and dose can help in improving the worst conditions. It helps in the reduction of symptoms and also in improving the life conditions.

DRUGS THAT ARE AVAILABLE FOR TREATING NEUROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

Corticosteroids: These are used for treating multiple sclerosis.

Dopamine affecting drugs for example Levopoda. These drugs are used in the treatment of Parkinson.

It helps in reducing tremors as well. These medication also include side effects. It is usually based on the type of disorder that a person is dealing with and what kind of medication is being used for the treatment. Some people also experience a sort of dependence on that particular medication.

The key to deal with a neurological disorder is to choose your medical treatment wisely as entire life depends on that.

What do you think?

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Written by Prarna koul

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Shreshtha Negi

Such an Informative article!